Thursday, August 27, 2020

Birmingham Campaign free essay sample

Crusade †Essay notes Cause †¢Underlying reason for history of subjection, liberation, isolation/Jim Crow laws. †¢Long term reason for developing Black Civil Rights development gathering speed and bringing issues to light of issue. Past Black Civil rights battles that motivated and started e. g. Occasions, for example, Montgomery Bus Boycott which gave MLKing his first enormous influential position. Additionally Freedom Riders, Brown VS leading group of Ed. †¢Birmingham was one of the most exceedingly awful isolated enormous urban areas in the USA †¢History of unforgiving and brutal isolation and abuse of dark residents, KKK backing and participation, focal point of bigotry in the South †¢Government authorities star isolation †¢SCLC-King’s bunch †¢NAACP was prohibited †¢Eg. Bull Connor and †¦.. †¢The disappointment of Albany-absence of exposure. †¢Event †¢Police brutality †¢Dog assaults †¢High pressure hoses †¢Arrests. †¢By-standers savagery †¢Children’s Crusade (essential and optional) †¢Martin Luther King being captured †¢Letter from Birmingham Jail †¢Ã¢â‚¬Å"Project C† = direct activity and incitement †¢Non-rough incitements osit ins at White Churches, walks, blacklists, lunch counters and so on. We will compose a custom article test on Birmingham Campaign or on the other hand any comparable theme explicitly for you Don't WasteYour Time Recruit WRITER Just 13.90/page †¢Use of kids to fuel fight Consequence †¢Publicity †¢National/International compassion †¢White backfire †oSixteenth St Baptist Church bombarding murdering 4 young ladies oHotel besieged where Martin Luther King Jr and SCLC had stayed oMartin Luther King Jr’s sibling Alfred’s house shelled †¢Riots †¢March on Washington †¢Civil Rights Act of 1964 †¢Governor Wallace sent State Troops to stop integration of schools and accordingly Present Kennedy sent Federal Troops. †¢Martin Luther King’s notoriety (â€Å"I have a dream† discourse). Nobel Peace prize 1964. †¢Positives: oâ€Å"Jim Crow† laws brought down integrating open offices eg Lunch counters, water fountains and so forth oAllowed Black business oMore rights for Black residents

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Analyzing The Magical Realism Styles Of Genres English Literature Essay free essay sample

Beguiling practicality is a tasteful way or sort in writing in which enchanting components are mixed into a reasonable vibe so as to course a more profound misgiving of world.[ 1 ]Cases of enchanting sober mindedness are pervasive in both The House of the Spirits and Wide Sargasso Sea, by way of utilization of components of Mysticism and Occult. In The House of the Spirits, Clara has been portrayed as a juvenile miss with heavenly capacities of second sight and psychokinesis. All through the novel we see her capacity to envision the great beyond, move objects without contacting them and understand dreams to arranged offices and terminals. Nonetheless, in the Wide Sargasso Sea, Antoinette unwilling use of obi to recoup the lost love of her hubby does non take to matrimonial beyond happy. In the Wide Sargasso Sea, Antoinette is rather loner and accepts that the universe is flippant and Christophine, her amah who examples mysterious remains her solitary associate and the 1 who can deliver God-like magic. Antoinette trusts that her marriage will work out an amazing employments. In any case, Christophine s magic completely blowbacks and is a cardinal factor which prompts her grievous terminal. She believes everything to be destiny and destiny. As a child, Antoinette comprehends from her new retainers that Christophine examples of Obeah. The author shows Antoinette imagine ofing a visit to Christophine s place, where she sees rather ambiguous items. At her home she envisions a dead grown-up guys dried manus, white poulet tufts, and a prick with its pharynx cut. When qualm and obscurity come into the relationship, she reluctantly goes to Christophine to look for help. Christophine cautiousnesss Antoinette that using Obeah would simply do her hubby experience a sexual want for her, non love. She says, Even in the event that I can do him go to your bed, I can non do him love you. [ 2 ]It is obviously stressed that Christophine understands the uselessness of the utilization of magic on Antoinette s hubby. She discloses to Antoinette that When grown-up male do nt love you, more you attempt, more he loathe you, grown-up male like thataë†â ¦ [ 3 ]and that aˆÂ ¦If the grown-up male do nt love you, I ca nt do him love you. [ 4 ]She other than cautions her that Obeah works fundamentally on and for Black individuals and non on the White people . Christophine tells Antoinette, aˆÂ ¦Too other than that is non for beke . Awful, awful issue com when beke intrude with that. [ 5 ]Christophine advices her to decide for another approach to choose occupations of her marital life. Be that as it may, Antoinette has capitulated to her evil destiny and accepts that there is no other hotel to revive her marriage. She urges Christophine to make her order. You should I will hush up, I will non yell. In any case, Christophine, in the event that he, my hubby, could come to me one dim. Again. I could do him love me. [ 6 ] Hesitantly, Christophine consents to prepare an elixir with the expectation that it may help Antoinette determine her hubby s love. Be that as it may, Christophine s hope of awful, awful issue is the solitary outcome. The Potion does non incite the pined for result on her hubby ; on the other hand, entirely as opposed to the plan for which the elixir was devised, it moves him into the weaponries of Amelie, the house amah. Moreover, he gets fierce with her, inferring that she has attempted to harm him, deduces that she could be each piece crazed as her female parent was before her and orchestrates them to go forward Coulibri each piece in no time as could reasonably be expected. In England, Antoinette is detained and is taken care of by Grace Poole. She essentially stays a doll in the authorities of her inconsistent hubby. At the point when she is secured up in the Attic, she can't recover what her identity is and chases for a mirror to recognize herself. Thusly, the use of powerful p rompts a nullification of her distinction. She does nt recognize her progression sibling and scrambles at him with a blade when he comes to run into her. It appears as though her memory has been eradicated and she can't recollect that anything. In this way we see the utilization of heavenly acquiring anarchy the life of the supporter in Jean Rhys Wide Sargasso Sea. In The House of the Spirits, Clara is depicted as a bit of an upbeat days gone by in the main section of the novel, her universe of glad quick ones, the Canis familiaris, and her association with her uncle and his stored abundance of beguiling quick ones. Little does she cognize how enchanting of brand accept, finesse of the manus would in this way take her to a vast expanse of segregation where she would only pass on with alcohols, and consequently escape from world to the stunning universe of mixers. Her willful quietness cleared way to the universe of mixers who she could partner to superior to a cold merciless universe. We see the crisp start with Severo Del Valle s political affiliation and how it intercedes with Clara s phenomenal enrichment of second sight. The essayist makes this understood in the extremely first section the scene at Church and thereupon, when the Del Valle family is advised to go forward when Clara says something about snake pit. She is supposed to be Possessed She s controlled by the Satan! [ 7 ]by Father Restrepo. Clara s guardians accept that if individuals understand that she is has a bizarre, numinous establishment it could debilitate Severo del Valle s political desires and the family unit may go a start of delight or scorn. Thus, she is non presented to society and is held restricted to the house which advances these irregular characteristics. Clara anticipates her marriage with Esteban Trueba, who at one purpose of clasp was her sister s life partner . She does non get hitched Esteban because of the acquiescence of her feelings however rather out of a premonition she gets about her destiny. She accept it to be her destiny and thinks about it to inescapable. Mystic consultation gives her a resistance instrument against the lesser evaluation universes of life. It cautions her of the inevitable occasions which she evidently acknowledges: aˆÂ ¦Severo and Nivea Del Valle had diedaˆÂ ¦Clara discovered in her fantasy before every other person. [ 8 ] Make me some help Senor, measure through here and manus me that grown-up female s caput you ll see lying on the land. [ 9 ] Everything will turn out fineaˆÂ ¦It s non one, it s two. The twins will be called Jaime and Nicolas, severally. [ 10 ] However Clara s endeavors to turn up Ferula end up being inadequate. She is only ready to see her soul. She says that You ca nt happen individual who does nt want to be found. The three Mora sisters are Clara s Astral sisters. They learn of Clara s being through clairvoyant contact with her. They, along with Clara summon mixers. The remainder of the enduring Mora sisters, Luisa Mora, prophetically cautions Alba of the threat that anticipates her in the event that she makes plans to shack in the state after the putsch. In Clara s life, beguiling plays an extremely of import work. Her mystic consultations, in one way or the different detaches and separations her from typical individuals as other than individuals who care about her and plug up suffering for it. Enchantment loans to her phantasmagoric thoughts and imaginativenesss. Nonetheless, it other than makes her mental when she is compelled to confront world, as she has neer been firmly identified with world. Antoinette experiences condition of affairss in which she is compelled to use enchanting as the last change to choose her occupations ; on the different manus Clara s numinous capacities are inherent. Differentiating to Antoinette, Clara does nt use her capacities for individual increments yet for helping individuals. Both the female supporters utilize otherworldly and supernatural quality to achieve some felicity and harmony and to come to footings with the harshness in their lives. Anyway it bombs in an enormous way to pass on about a charmed stoping to their lives. While it prompts the Nemesis of one ( Antoinette ) , it for good separations the other ( Clara ) from individuals who could hold been a significant segment, however were consigned to the foundation in the immense canvas of her mysterious life.

Friday, August 21, 2020

Winner Of Blogussion Inspired Thesis Skin

Winner Of Blogussion Inspired Thesis Skin Make Money Online Queries? Struggling To Get Traffic To Your Blog? Sign Up On (HBB) Forum Now!Winner Of Blogussion Inspired Thesis SkinUpdated On 23/04/2017Author : Pradeep KumarTopic : EditorialShort URL : CONNECT WITH HBB ON SOCIAL MEDIA Follow @HellBoundBlogHope you are aware about the Blogussion Inspired Thesis Skin giveaway. Like Thesis, this is also an User Friendly Theme. Has own additional admin options and plenty of new widget areas.This inspiring Blogussion Theme comes with four color schemes. They are Grey, Orange, Green and Blue. You can manage them from your admin Control Panel. This theme also has three column widget powered footer. You can also try Asnio Footer designed by this Theme Author. Blogussion Theme + Asnio Footer gives excellent result.Winner - Narendran.MP.S. You need Thesis theme to apply this Blogussion Inspired Theme/Skin.I have been conducting such giveaways in order to encourage Commentators and Tweeples.The winner is Narendran. M. Congratulations for Narendran.M and thanks for the other participants. Ill conduct him asap with the theme.This is not the end. I have prepared a list of cool themes and ebooks for you. I will conduct contests and giveaways to give them to you guys. If you want to get quick updates regarding that, you can subscribe us and participate easily.READExperimental: A HTML5 Premium Blogger Template

Monday, May 25, 2020

Theodore Roosevelt, the 26th president of the United...

Theodore Roosevelt, the 26th president of the United States of America was born on October 27, 1858. He was born in New York City, New York to his parents Theodore Roosevelt, Sr. and Martha Bulloch Roosevelt. When he was little he had many health problems, such as asthma. He also had chronic stomach pains and headaches. Because of these problems, he didn’t go outside often, so he stuck to reading books and other types of indoor entertainment. When he was eighteen years old he moved to Cambridge, Massachusetts, and applied to Harvard University. Almost in his third year of Harvard he married his girlfriend, Alice Hathaway Lee. A year or two passed after his marriage when he graduated from Harvard University. Many good things started†¦show more content†¦The number went up to six when his daughter Alice came to live with them. When he returned to New York, he wanted to reenter politics. Theodore Roosevelt was appointed as the head of the U.S. Civil Service Commission er in 1889. After this, he stepped down and became New York City Police Commissioner. He served as police commissioner of the New York Police Department for two years, and then he accepted his new appointment as Assistant Secretary of the Navy, given to him by President McKinley. As Assistant Secretary of the Navy, his work was geared towards making the U.S. Navy stronger and preparing them for any potential threats, such as from the Spanish Empire. When war did break out between Spain and the United States in 1898, he was ready. He told Admiral Dewey to attack the Spanish in the Philippine Islands. He then resigned his post as assistant secretary and helped organize and lead a volunteer regiment in the Army known as the Rough Riders. Under his leadership, the Rough Riders defeated the Spanish garrison in the Battle of San Juan Hill in Cuba in July of 1898. After the war was over, he became famous for drafting the letter that was for the end of the U.S. occupation of Cuba. With his fame as a war hero, he became a candidate for office as governor of New York in 1898. He continued to fight for political reform. To get rid of him, Boss Platt nominated RooseveltShow MoreRelatedTheodore Roosevelt And The Cuban War1086 Words   |  5 Pageshistory is Theodore Roosevelt. During his life, he made a great impact on America. Roosevelt was the 26th president and fought in the Spanish-American War, also known as the Cuban War. He was the most influential person who supported the completion of construction of the Panama Canal. One of the first and most important National Parks, Theodore Roosevelt National Park in western North Dakota, was named after him too. During his presidency, he inspired many. If it was not for Theodore Roosevelt, our societyRead MoreWoodrow Wilson And Theodore Roosevelt Essay1463 Words   |  6 PagesAs Americ a approached the 20th century it had achieved great prestige in the world for having a prosperous economy built on free market system. The facets of an American identity mostly revolved around corporate power and stability. The corporations grew at a national scale effortlessly, and within years, international; the United States was following similar footsteps of the British East India Company as an emulation to the western hemisphere. Contracted railroads, lands, and farms were the cruxRead MoreTheodore Teddy Roosevelt And The President Of The United States955 Words   |  4 Pages Theodore â€Å"Teddy† Roosevelt was the 26th president of the United States. He was born in New York City on October 27, 1858. His parents, Theodore and Martha Bulloch Roosevelt, had 4 children. Teddy’s brother’s name was Elliot, and his sisters were Anna and Corinne. As a child, Teddy was active and curious. He had asthma, though, and was also nearsighted. He traveled a lot with hi s family. He went to Europe and the Middle East when he was 10 and 14. When he was 12, his father built a gymnasium forRead MoreTheodore Roosevelt s Study Of The War Of 18121318 Words   |  6 PagesBackground Theodore Roosevelt was born on October 27, 1858 and died on January 6, 1919. He was the son of Theodore Roosevelt Senior, and Martha Stewart Bulloch, and was fortunate enough to attend Harvard University and Colombia Law School. He accomplished a lot of things in his life which led to him having a successful career in whatever he pursued. He was a politician, author naturalist, soldier, explorer, and historian who happened to become the 26th president of the United States of America. Read MoreEssay on Theodore Roosevelt907 Words   |  4 Pages Theodore Roosevelt Theodore Roosevelt the 26th president of the United States, was born at 33 East 20th Street in New York on October 27, 1858.His father was a man of some wealth and importance in civic affairs. A prosperous family like the Roosevelts had a better than most people in that era. At eight years of age he was sickly and delicate and then his interest in natural-history started at this early age. Through sports and outdoor living, he became rugged and a love of the strenuousRead MoreThe American Of American Identity Essay1520 Words   |  7 PagesAs America approached the 20th century, it had achieved great prestige in the world for having a prosperous economy built on a free market system. The facets of an American identity mostly revolved around corporate power and stability. The corporations grew at a national scale effortlessly, and within years, international; the United States was following similar footsteps of the British East India Company to emulate it’s exploits in the western hemisphere. Contracted railroads, lands, and farms wereRead MoreIntroduction. In â€Å"The Man With The Muck-Rake,† Theodore1327 Words   |  6 PagesIntroduction In â€Å"The Man with the Muck-Rake,† Theodore Roosevelt used diction, symbolism, and ethos to convey his convictions on the social and political evils in progressive era America in order to shed light on the necessity of a proper and honest society. Historical Background In the late nineteenth century, America was a country in its prime of industrialization and immigration influx. Known as the Gilded Age, this period defined the United States as the bustling powerhouse it is today, but atRead MorePresident Theodore Roosevelt : The President Of The United States Of America1210 Words   |  5 PagesPresident Theodore Roosevelt was the 26th President of the United States of America. Roosevelt was an adaptive compliant President. He expressed great work ethic and leadership during his time in the White House. In fact while he was in office Roosevelt viewed the President as the â€Å"steward of the people† and kept that mindset all throughout his presidency. President Roosevelt in history is one of the youngest Presidents to assume the position of office. The start of Roosevelt’s Presidency startedRead MoreTheodore Roosevelt . Introduction To The Life Of Theodore1574 Words   |  7 PagesTHEODORE ROOSEVELT Introduction to the Life of Theodore Roosevelt Theodore Roosevelt was born October 27, 1858 in New York City to Theodore Roosevelt Sr. and Martha Bulloch. Theodore was also known as Teedie or Teddy. Due to his continuing battle with health issues, which started at birth, Roosevelt was homeschooled along with his siblings. The family house also had a gymnasium where he lifted weights and boxed to help him gain strength. Despite what appeared to be a sickly and weak child, RooseveltRead MoreThe Lion Of The White House : A Life Of Theodore Roosevelt1029 Words   |  5 PagesHouse: A Life of Theodore Roosevelt. This book is a chronicle story and achievement of Theodore Roosevelt. Aida Donald has also written a biography of President Harry S. Truman. On one of her interview, she simply said she has had great fun writing about Theodore Roosevelt. Ms. Donald is former editor in chief of Harvard University Press. In this well-written book, she gives a brief history of life of one of the greatest president of United States of America, Th eodore Roosevelt. This is not in depth

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell Policy Essay - 1749 Words

Today’s military is a unique force in my opinion. What makes the US Military so unique is that we have an all volunteer force. With that volunteer force there are rules and regulations that need to be followed because serving our country is a privilege. The Dont Ask, Dont Tell policy is claiming that even though it may be considered an infringement on human rights and freedom of expression, it protects the rights of the rest of the military and opens a loophole for gay men and women to serve in the armed forces. Other countries have successfully integrated gay men and women into their militaries and compared the treatment of other minority groups in the military. Is the â€Å"Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell† policy really effective or even†¦show more content†¦There are claims that allowing gays and lesbians into the service openly about their sexual orientation is violation to all service members’ privacy. Officially, military commanders and inve stigators are required to respect service members’ privacy and are not allowed to investigate personnel for homosexuality. This action is described as a witch hunt. Witch hunts distract the service members from their work and the â€Å"Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell† made this distraction easier. This causes interference with the ability for them to do their job performance effectively. The United States is not the only ones who use the DADT ban. There are several militaries all over the country that has experienced this ban at one point. For example, they are Australia, Britain; Canada, and Israel just to name a few. They have all changed or lifted their ban without any problems and most often maintained excellent careers and good morale. Belkin, McNichol reports, that â€Å"In November 1992, the Australian Defense Forces lifted its ban on open gay and lesbian soldiers. Using all available data from military, academic, non-governmental, and other sources, t his report assesses the extent to which the lifting of the gay ban has affected the well-being and performance of the Australian military.† (Belkin, McNichol) Before the Australian Defense Force lifted their policy there were several reports of sexual harassment. The number of sexualShow MoreRelatedThe Process of Adjustment in Communication and the Effect on the Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell Policy1690 Words   |  7 PagesThe Process of Adjustment in Communication and the Effect on the Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell Policy Communication is regarded as a continuous process of adjustment. This process can be explained by looking at the recent repeal of the military’s Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell policy. This policy restricts the equal rights of homosexuals which has been a topic in heated debate for many years. Over the course of United States history, there have been numerous attempts at equalizing the rights among homosexualsRead MoreDont Ask, Dont Tell1239 Words   |  5 PagesReagan, the gay ban was more stringently enforced. In the 1990s, amidst vicious opposition to repeal the ban, President Bill Clinton enacted the compromise â€Å"Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell, Don’t Pursue, Don’t Harass† policy that provides for Sexual orientation [not to] be a bar to service unless manifested by homosexual conduct (qtd. in Don t Ask†). While it is true that the institution of the military is largely based on fraternal bonding that should not be cleaved by social factionalism, the call ofRead More Repeal of Dont Ask Dont Tell Essay1076 Words   |  5 Pages The ‘don’t ask, don’t tell’ policy is a major policy of the armed forces of the United States, and allows a number of people to serve their country. This policy restricts the United States armed forces from discovering gays, lesbians, and bisexuals. The ‘don’t ask, don’t tell’ policy has, in a way, limited homosexuals from completely fulfilling their military duties by forcing them to serve in the military silent about their personal lives. The policy is a violation of equal rights, forces homosexualsRead MoreEssay on Dont Ask, Dont Tell1447 Words   |  6 PagesIt was this problem that the policy known as â€Å"Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell† was designed to avoid, the tension caused between soldiers when homosexuals are serving openly. Without this policy, homosexuals serving openly could create tension that interferes with the military’s effectiveness. While it may not be obvious at first, the policy of â€Å"Don’t Ask Don’t Tell† actually supports the both values of the military and the rights of homosexuals. As a result, â€Å"Don’t Ask Don’t Tell† is needed to protect homosexualRead MoreResearch Paper on Dont Ask Dont Tell1683 Words   |  7 PagesRepeal Don’t Ask Don’t Tell The Don’t Ask Don’t tell act which prevented openly gay and lesbians from serving in the United States Armed forces was placed into law on December 21st, 1993. It states that the military cannot discriminate against any gay, lesbian or bisexual person as long as they are discreet about their sexuality. They believed that any persons showing or acting in homosexual behavior would go against strict military moral codes and policy. However on September 20th, 2011 theRead MoreDont Ask Dont Tell Outline Essay842 Words   |  4 PagesDon’t Ask Don’t Tell Policy Rachael Neff General purpose: To inform Specific purpose: To inform my audience of the Don’t Ask Don’t Tell policy and give a brief history of events. Central idea: According to my class survey the majority had little or no knowledge of the Don’t Ask Don’t Tell policy, so I am going to explain how it came to be. Introduction I.Fundamental beliefs A.Military Service Workers 1.Honorable 2.Courageous B. Service Members Turned Away 1.Openly gay 2.Ended careersRead MoreMilitary Discrimination against Homosexuals Essay1682 Words   |  7 Pagesthe United States military service including the Navy forces. Service men and women in the military were judged not only with reference to their behavioral conduct but also from their sexual orientation results. The Department of Defense (DOD) would ask questions concerning sexual orientation of prospects willing to join the military service. A sexual orientation related to sexual attraction to people of a particular gender. Even members of the military service were not allowed to make any statementRead MoreDont Ask, Dont Tell Essay1130 Words   |  5 PagesDon’t Ask, Don’t Tell The issue of gays in the military has been controversial in the United States for many decades. Over these decades there have been many different proposals as to what approach to take in order to handle the situation of homosexuals in the military. However, in 1992 when Bill Clinton was running for President of the United States, he made a promise to lift the ban on homosexuals in the military if he was elected (Washington Post). Bill Clinton followed through with his promiseRead MoreMovie Analysis : Soldier s Girl 947 Words   |  4 Pagesresulting trial give rise to wide spread press and a formal review of the â€Å"Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell† policy. This case, and several like it, became one of the many examples of just how ineffective the â€Å"Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell† policy was when it came to the protection of LGBT service men and women. There has been generally accepted historical facts concerning the struggles of gay service men and women during the â€Å"Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell† policy, and debates over its causes and what brought about its end. It wasRead MoreHomosexuals Should Be Allowed to Serve Openly in the Military1185 Words   |  5 PagesArab linguists, and Congress members seek hearing, Par. 1). One might ask why, during this time of combating Islamic terrorist networks and insurgents in Iraq, would the military get rid of people with such valuable talents? The answer is simple: these men and women are homosexual. Gays and lesbians can serve in the U.S. military but only if they keep their sexuality a secret. This is known as the Dont Ask, Dont Tell policy and has been in effect since 1993. The United States is one of only a

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

A Call to Action Regulate Use of Cell Phones on the Road

David ******* English 101-B 14 March 2004 A Call to Action: Regulate Use of Cell Phones on the Road When a cell phone goes off in a classroom or at a concert, we are irritated, but at least our lives are not endangered. When we are on the road, however, irresponsible cell phone users are more than irritating: They are putting our lives at risk. Many of us have witnessed drivers so distracted by dialing and chatting that they resemble drunk drivers, weaving between lanes, for example, or nearly running down pedestrians in crosswalks. A number of bills to regulate use of cell phones on the road have been introduced in state legislatures, and the time has come to push for their passage. Regulation is needed because drivers using phones are†¦show more content†¦Using police records, John M. Violanti of the Rochester Institute of Technology investigated the relation between traffic fatalities in Oklahoma and the use or presence of a cell phone. He found a ninefold in- crease in the risk of fatality if a phone was being used and a dou- bled risk simply when a phone was present in a vehicle (522-23). The latter statistic is interesting, for it suggests that those who Long quotation is set off from the text; quotation marks are omitted. Summary begins with a signal phrase naming the author and ends with page numbers in parentheses. Summary and long quotation are introduced with a signal phrase naming the authors. Page 4 Source: Diana Hacker (Boston: Bedford/St. Martins, 2004). Daly 4 carry phones in their cars may tend to be more negligent (or prone to distractions of all kinds) than those who do not. Some groups have argued that state traffic laws make legisla- tion regulating cell phone use unnecessary. Sadly, this is not true. Laws on traffic safety vary from state to state, and drivers dis- tracted by cell phones can get off with light punishment even when they cause fatal accidents. For example, although the mid- shipman mentioned earlier was charged with vehicular manslaugh- ter for the deaths of John and Carole Hall, the judge was unable to issue a verdict of guilty. Under Maryland law, he could only find the defendant guilty of negligent driving andShow MoreRelatedDistracted Driving and Cell Phones1678 Words   |  7 PagesToday, one of the major sources of automobile accidents is distracted driving due to cell phone use. Driver distraction can be defined as â€Å"the diversion of attention away from activities critical for the safe driving toward a competing activity† (Young 3). The dangers of driving while using a cell phone cannot be overstated, but drivers still use their cell phones even though they are illegal. According to a survey, â€Å"About 2 out of 10 (18%) report that they have s ent text messages or emails whileRead MoreThe Problem Of Texting While Driving Essay2490 Words   |  10 PagesCell phones have become the most used object in the world in people’s everyday lives. All around America, people are using these devices; from youth to senior citizens. Cell phones come with many benefits, one being applications that allow us to access the internet anytime, hold a great amount of storage and provide navigation across America without getting lost. However, applications are also a great distraction to the youth and adults who use them. Facebook, Twitter, picture editing, games andRead MoreHydraulic Fracking : Human Health, The Environment, And Economy Essay2323 Words   |  10 Pages Within the past few decades, the use of coal and oil are slowly starting to be phased out in major developed countries and the era of hydraulic fracking is starting to pave way. Hydraulic fracking like burning coal and oil allow us to carry out our daily functions by providing energy to fuel our modern day cars, cell phones, televisions, and just about anything and everything we depend on. However, hydraulic fracking has been found to be more detrimental to human health, the environment, and economyRead MoreWireless Technology Essay16392 Words   |  66 Pagesin the world today. Wireless technology is a technology that has changed the world and how it operates. Wireless technology is the ability to communicate between devices without wires. Wireless technology is found in many devices ranging from cell phones, computers, GPS units and house alarms. Through the advancements in our technology, it has become less common to function without this technology. Wireless technology provides the ability to transfer information between points without an electricalRead MoreUnderage Drinking Among Adolescents : Becoming A Problem2554 Words   |  11 Pagesleads young adults to drinking excessive amounts of alcohol. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention quoted underage drinking a â€Å"major public health problem,† also saying alcohol is more likely to become abused rather than illicit drugs or tobacco use. (Collins) What parents do not know is they can help reduce their son or daughter having the urge to go to parties or get alcohol. â€Å"Young people who get a strong message from their parents that underage drinking is totally unacceptable are less likelyRead MoreSo, How Do People Really Use Their Handheld Devices? an Interactive Study of Wireless Technology Use13130 Words   |  53 Pages146 So, how do people really use their handheld devices? An interactive study of wireless technology usey FRANCINE K. SCHLOSSER* University of Waterloo, Canada Summary Using a symbolic interactionist methodology, the diverse meanings assigned by employees to wireless handheld technology are investigated. Interviews were conducted with 11 individuals representing three organizations in the public and private sector enhancing our understanding of technology use within an organizational contextRead MoreSleep and Time Essay7064 Words   |  29 Pagesgenerals quarters whatever patrol I am I would not be able to respond accordingly to the situation. This could lead to possibly danger for patrols that are in the area. Say I am patrol 2-1 and a bomb threat is at the general’s quarters. Mohawk would call patrol to 2-1 to the scene and along with the patrol supervisor 2-0 to handle the scene and secure the area making sure that no civilians are in the area within a hundred feet of where the possible bomb threat is. On top of the bomb threat being inRead MoreMajor Incident : 9 / 11 Terrorist Attack3586 Words   |  15 Pagesdifferences amongst them. Though they are both imply a direct threat and harm to humans and/or the environment, there definitions differ. An Emergency can be defined as â€Å"an unforeseen combination of circumstances or the resulting state that calls for immediate action; an urgent need for assistance or relief.† (Modern Survival Blog, 2014). An emergency situation will require attention right away, in some cases an emergency can lead up towards a disaster, but it can be as small as to only impact an individualRead MorePersonal Physicians Essay12233 Words   |  49 Pagesas she can. Please be patient, Sir, she added, as she whipped herself around to answer the phone. â€Å"Patient? What do these people know about patience? If my accountant were two hours late to each of his appointments, he muttered under his breath, he wouldnt keep any of his clients, even during tax season! Finally, at 3:01: The doctor will see you now. Seventeen minutes later he was back on the road, his sole souvenir of the visit being a hastily written prescription for some medicine he hadRead MoreThe Environmental Problems in India6662 Words   |  27 Pagesbutterflies on the Khardung La (the worlds highest motorable road in Ladakh) during one of our visits. It was primarily due to a rise in vehicular traffic by the tourists, she said.    |      Ã‚   Industrial pollution   Ã‚      |    |      River water Pollution    Contaminated and polluted water now kills more people than all forms of violence including wars, according to a United Nations report released on March 22, 2010 on World Water Day that calls for turning unsanitary wastewater into an environmentally

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

The problem of polysemy in the English language free essay sample

Ministry OF EDUCATION, SCIENCE, YOUTH AND SPORT OF UKRAINE IVAN FRANCO NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF LVIV COLLEGE OF EDUCATION THE PROBLEM OF POLYSEMY IN THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE Bachelor paper presented by a 4th # 8212 ; twelvemonth pupil Galyna Tsvyk Supervised by Drofyak N.I. Teacher of English Lviv 2011 Table of Contentss Introduction Chapter I. Wordss as Meaningful Unit of measurements 1.1 Polysemy as the Source of Ambiguities in a Language 1.2 Historical Development of the Polysemy 1.2.1 The Diachronic Approach to Studying Polysemy 1.2.2 The Synchronic Approach to Studying Polysemy 1.3 Polysemy and its Connection with the Context Chapter II. Practical Use of Polysemy in Teaching English 2.1 Polysemy in Teaching English on Intermediate Level 2.2 Polysemy in Teaching English on Advanced Level 2.3 Lesson Plan Decisions List of Mentions Introduction Language is defined as a human system of communicating that uses arbitrary signals, such as voice sounds, gestures, or written symbols. But frankly speech production, linguistic communication is far excessively complicated, fascinating, and cryptic to be adequately explained by a brief definition. The organic map of the linguistic communication is to transport intending. Most of the jobs in lingual scientific discipline are closely bound to inquiry of cognitive semantics and call for scientific analysis of communicating in words. The survey of words is non entirely a survey of roots and stems, of prefixes or postfixs. The cryptic universe of words is an object of scientific probe [ 13 ; 25 ] . Theoretical jobs of lingual signifier and significance as relevant to the progressive development of linguistic communication have attracted the attending of bookmans, philosophers and syntacticians since the times of Plato and Aristotle. From those times sameness of significance was non really easy to cover with but there seemed nil inherently hard about difference of significance. The state of affairs is the same presents. Not merely different words have different significances ; it # 8217 ; s besides the instance that the same word may hold a set of significances. This phenomenon is called lexical ambiguity. Polysemy is the coexistence of many possible significances for a word or phrase. Most words of the English linguistic communication are polysemous. Highly developed lexical ambiguity is one of the characteristic characteristics of the English linguistic communication. The system of significances of any polysemous word develops bit by bit, largely over the centuries, as more and more new significances are either added to old 1s, or out some of them. We say that the word is polysemous when it has many significances. In the word the chief and the secondary significances are distinguished. Therefore, the word is polysemous in the linguistic communication but in existent address it is ever monosemantic, that is, it has merely one significance. It is in the context that makes the polysemous word monosemantic. The researches of lexical ambiguity are besides important in grammar, as most grammatical signifiers are polysemous. Even a individual grammatical signifier can be made to show a whol e assortment of structural significances. The semantic construction of a polysemous word is treated as a system of significances. Some semantic constructions are arranged on a different rule. In the undermentioned list of significance of the adjectival dull one can barely trust to happen a generalised significance covering and keeping together the remainder of the semantic construction. The researches of the multiplicity of significances began in 18th century and were continued in the 19th century. The most of import investing in this century was made by Bre # 769 ; Als whose research into lexical ambiguity marked a new get downing point: he shifted the survey of lexical ambiguity off from lexicography and etymology and investigated lexical ambiguity as the ever synchronous form of intending environing a word is itself he of all time altering consequence of semantic alteration [ 6 ; 154 ] . The of import researches in the domain of lexical ambiguity were made by Lyon who considers lexical ambiguity and homonymy as two types of lexical ambiguity and present some standards for make up ones minding when it is polysemy and when it is homonymy. One standard is etymological information about the lexical point in inquiry. Lexical points with the same beginning are considered as polysemous, whereas if they have evolved from distinguishable lexemes in some earlier phase of the linguistic communication so they are regarded as homonymic [ 15 ; 123-124 ] . Lexical significance of every word depends upon the portion of address to which the word belongs. Every word may be used in a modification set of syntactical maps, and with the definite valency. It has a definite set of grammatical significances, and a definite set of signifiers. Every lexico-grammatical group of words or category is characterized by its ain lexico-grammatical significance, organizing, as it were, the common denominator of all the significances of the words which belongs to this group. The lexico-grammatical significance may be besides regarded as a characteristic harmonizing to which these words are grouped together. Many recent probes are devoted to set uping word categories on the footing of similarity of distribution. In the lexical significance of every separate word the lexico-grammatical significance common to all the words of the category to which this word belongs is enriched by extra characteristics and becomes particularized [ 6 ; 205-206 ] . In summing up this point, we note that the complexness of the impression is determined by the relationships of the extra-linguistic world reflected in human consciousness. The construction of every separate significance depends on the lingual syntagmatic and paradigmatic relationships because significance is an built-in constituent of linguistic communication. The complexness of every word significance is due to the fact that it combines lexical significance with lexico-grammatical significance and sometimes with emotional colouring, stylistic distinctive features and intensions born from old use. The importance of analyzing the phenomenon of lexical ambiguity is obvious because it is the object of confusion and in order to supply a quantitative and qualitative growing of the linguistic communication # 8217 ; s expressive resources it is highly of import to look into the semantic alterations in the system of significances in the English linguistic communication. To understand a text, scholars need to cognize words and cognizing a word involves cognizing: its spoken and written contexts of usage its forms with words of related significance. When learning vocabulary it is so necessary to see facets like indication, lexical ambiguity, intension and sociocultural facets when learning a 2nd or foreign linguistic communication so that scholars are able to acquire intending from texts. The purpose of research is to do an analysis of the chief rules of word significance and its jobs in learning English. The aim of this research is the probe of lexical ambiguity in historical and synchronous dimensions. Harmonizing to the aim there are following undertakings: 1 ) to demo historical background of the lexical ambiguity ; 2 ) to depict semantic construction of polysemous words ; 3 ) to detect the impact of the context on the significance of polysemous words ; 4 ) to depict the practical use of the lexical ambiguity. To work out all these undertakings my diploma paper was designed. Chapter I. Wordss as Meaningful Unit of measurements 1.1 Polysemy as the Source of Ambiguities in a Language Polysemy is a semantic inherent in the cardinal construction of the linguistic communication. All linguistic communications have polysemy on several degrees. A wide-spread lexical ambiguity in English is justly considered as one of its characteristic characteristics conditioned by the distinctive features of its construction. The chief beginning of the development of regular lexical ambiguity is the metaphoric and metonymic transference, which is platitude and appears to be cardinal in life linguistic communication. Polysemic words make up a considerable portion of the English vocabulary. Potential lexical ambiguity of words is the most fertile beginning of ambiguities in linguistic communication. In a limited figure of instances two significances of the same English words are differentiated by certain formal agencies, as, for case, by spelling: born # 8212 ; borne, bill of exchange # 8212 ; draught ; by word-order: embassador extraordinary # 8212 ; extraordinary embassador ; by inflection: hanged # 8212 ; bent. The differentiations between thing-words ( countables ) and mass-words ( uncountables ) is easy plenty if we look at the thought that is expressed in each individual case. But in practical linguistic communication the differentiation is non carried through in such a manner that one and the same word stands ever for one and the same thought [ 9 ; 112 ] . On the contrary, a great many words may in one connexion base for something denumerable and in the other for something uncountable. Comparison: 1 ) Have an ice. 2 ) There is no ice on the pool. In the first illustration ice # 8212 ; any frozen sweet, particularly one incorporating pick, as a H2O ice, sherbert or frappe # 769 ; . In the 2nd illustration ice # 8212 ; H2O frozen frosting icing, any substance looking like ice. In the huge bulk of instances the context, lingual or situational will contract down all irrelevant senses [ 11 ; 97-98 ] . Wordss frequently marks non of one but of several things. The lingual mechanism works of course in many waysto prevent ambiguity and supply the hint to separate the necessary significance. It # 8217 ; s besides of import to take into consideration the significance of the context, lingual or non-linguistic ; many ambiguities are neer noticed because the assorted possible significances are excluded by the state of affairs. Important observations in this country of the vocabulary have been made by contextual, distributional and transformational analysis [ 16 ; 185 ] . The job of lexical ambiguity, in other words, the usage of the same word in two or more distinguishable significances in relevant to a figure of other of import inquiries. These are: the development of different types of equivalent word, as a consequence of semantic heterotaxies of lexical units and homonymy. Specifying lexical ambiguity as a lingual development, Charles Bally made differentiation between its two facets: foremost, when one lingual mark has several significances, and so, when significance is expressed by several lingual marks. Wordss may turn in connotative power in conformity with the nature with the significances connected with them. In the power of intension lies the modesty force of linguistic communication. Without this linguistic communication would lose much of its expressivity and flexibleness. The frequence of lexical ambiguity in different linguistic communications is a variable depending on assorted factors. Languages where derivation and composing are meagerly used tend to make full the spreads in vocabulary by adding new significance to bing footings. Polysemy more frequently occurs in generic words than in specific footings whose significances are less capable to fluctuation [ 3 ; 214-215 ] . It is highly of import non to lose sights of the fact that few words have simple significances. Practically most words have, besides their direct significance, a periphery of associated significances. As a affair of fact, linguistic communication owes really much of its expressive power to the thoughts and emotions associated with words. There are normally a assortment of associated significances which appear in changing grades of prominence determined by the context. The class followed by words used in different context and the displacements of intending nowadayss a major involvement in incompatible lexicology and typological survey of linguistic communications. In analysing the semantic construction of words we have already seen that some significances constantly come to the bow when we hear the word in existent address or see in written. Other significances make themselves apparent merely when the word is used in certain contexts. The context makes the significance explicit, in other words, brings them out. This is non to state that polysemic words have significances merely in context. As has already been decidedly stressed the semantic construction of the word is a dialectic entity and involves dialectical permanence and evenness [ 14 ; 126-127 ] . Meaning should ever be understood as affecting the relation of linguistic communication to the remainder of the universe and such meaningfulness is an indispensable portion of the definition of linguistic communication. The distributional analysis of intending makes it possible to uncover a great trade about the entire operation and usage of words in a linguistic communication. It gives sufficient grounds to acknowledge that portion of the entire significance of many words in all linguistic communications is to be determined by their dealingss with other words in both the basic dimensions of lingual analysis, syntagmatic and paradigmatic. Wordss as single lexical points are structurally related to each other [ 14 ; 129 ] . A particular involvement is presented by the polysemic words whose significance is based on a broad fanciful footing. Such lexical units can be used as map words uncovering the tendence to partial or complete semantic depletion. The first to be mentioned here are the verbs to be, to make, to acquire, to hold, to do, to put, to take. The semantic value and functional usage of these polysemic verbs offers troubles in linguistic communication acquisition and lexicography. As it has been pointed out, componential analysis presupposes the disclosure of differential and built-in semantic characteristics of lexical units and their variant significances, in other words, semantic resistances on the lexico-grammatical degree. Compare, for illustration, the semantic group of verbs which, besides the verb to be in its locative significance # 8216 ; # 1073 ; # 1091 ; # 1090 ; # 1080 ; , # 1079 ; # 1085 ; # 1072 ; # 1093 ; # 1086 ; # 1076 ; # 1080 ; # 1090 ; # 1080 ; # 1089 ; # 1100 ; # 8217 ; , includes at least such verbs as: to populate, to remain, to brood, to shack. The typical characteristics of the members of the group observed in their significance reveal themselves in the information which they carry about the continuance of the action. The verbs to populate and to brood, for case, do non demo any particular contrast in this regard. In spoken English # 8216 ; dwell # 8217 ; is now normally replaced by # 8216 ; live # 8217 ; . But if we compare such verbs as to be, to remain and to populate, we shall see that they differ basically in showing the durative character of the action and are non ever interchangeable. For illustration, She is in the house. She stays in the house. She lives in the house. The verb to shack is stylistically pronounced member of the synonymic group characterized by its usage in formal English. It is of involvement to observe that transferred significances of words in different linguistic communications do non ever co-occur. By the manner of illustration: 1 ) back # 8212 ; # 1089 ; # 1087 ; # 1080 ; # 1085 ; # 1072 ; ; 2 ) the dorsum of a chair # 8212 ; # 1089 ; # 1087 ; # 1080 ; # 1085 ; # 1082 ; # 1072 ; # 1089 ; # 1090 ; # 1110 ; # 1083 ; # 1100 ; # 1094 ; # 1103 ; ; 3 ) the dorsum of a manus # 8212 ; # 1090 ; # 1080 ; # 1090 ; # 1091 ; # 1083 ; # 1100 ; # 1085 ; # 1072 ; # 1087 ; # 1086 ; # 1074 ; # 1077 ; # 1088 ; # 1093 ; # 1085 ; # 1103 ; # 1088 ; # 1091 ; # 1082 ; # 1080 ; ; 4 ) the dorsum of a ship # 8212 ; # 1082 ; # 1110 ; # 1083 ; # 1100 ; # 1089 ; # 1091 ; # 1076 ; # 1085 ; # 1072 ; . A assortment of associated significances which appear in changing grades of prominence determined by the context may be illustrated by the semantic value of the adjectival great which implies # 8216 ; being much above the norm in size # 8217 ; , magnitude or strength ; in certain contexts of its usage great comes to intend: eminent, of import: great authors, great bookmans, great instrumentalists. In conversational usage great frequently suggests differentiation of proficiency [ 11 ; 102-103 ] . The job of lexical ambiguity in grammar is one of the most of import, the one which is really complex and seems to be relevant to a figure of facets. Like words which is really complex and seems to be relevant to a figure of facets. Like words which are frequently marks non of one but of several things, a individual grammatical signifier can besides be made to show a whole assortment of structural significances. This appears to be natural and is a reasonably common development in the construction of any linguistic communication. This linguistics mechanism works of course in many ways to forestall ambiguity in forms of grammatical construction. Orientation towards the content will by and large demo which of the possible significances is to be attached to polysemous grammatical signifier [ 7 ; 236 ] . Most grammatical signifiers are polysemous. On this degree of lingual analysis differentiation should be made between synchronous and possible lexical ambiguity. Therefore, for case, the primary denotive significance of the Present Continuous is characterized by three semantic elements: 1 ) present clip ; 2 ) something progressive ; 3 ) contact with the minute of address. The three elements make up its synchronous lexical ambiguity. So therefore, we can clearly see importance of researches of lexical ambiguity in grammar. 1.2 Historical Development of the Polysemy The modern term lexical ambiguity was popularized by Bre # 769 ; Al in 1887. Most modern linguistics covering with the subject of lexical ambiguity refer to the important day of the month, but they seldom look farther back into the yesteryear. The # 8220 ; roots # 8221 ; of the construct of lexical ambiguity prevarication in the Grecian doctrine, that is, the argument environing the job of naturalness or flightiness of marks as debated in Plato # 8217 ; s ( 429-347B.C. ) Cratylus. In his history of Plato # 8217 ; s part to linguistics, Fred Householder points out that Democritus ( 460-mid-4th century B.C. ) offered four statements in favor of flightiness: 1 ) homonymy or lexical ambiguity # 8212 ; the same sequence of phonemes may be associated with two or more unrelated significances ; 2 ) polyonymy or isorrophy # 8212 ; the being of equivalent word ; 3 ) metonymy # 8212 ; the fact that words and intending alteration ; 4 ) nonymy # 8212 ; the non-existence of individual words for simple or familiar thoughts. Polysemy meant chiefly what was subsequently to be called # 8220 ; homonymy # 8221 ; , mentioning to the multiple, but unrelated significance of a word. Bre # 769 ; Als still subsumed homonymy under the header of lexical ambiguity [ 18 ; 25 ] . The term polyonymy was besides used by the Stoics analyzing how one and the same object may have many different names, how it can go # 8220 ; manynamed # 8221 ; or polyonomous. During the Middle Ages the reading by the Holy Scriptures came up against the job of lexical ambiguity that was acknowledged, but one that had been tampted ( by the theory of four senses ) . The first who used the tern polysemantic in a comparatively modern sense was Dante, who wrote approximately polysemantic character of a verse form: # 8220 ; Istius operis non est simplex sensus, immo dici potest polysemum, hoc est plurium sensum # 8221 ; ( # 8220 ; this work doesn # 8217 ; t have one simple significance, on the contrary, I say that it can be polysemantic, that is can hold many significances # 8221 ; ) [ 22 ; 176 ] . When showing his verse form to Cangrante della Scala, Dante makes instantly clear that it has to be read as a # 8220 ; polysemantic # 8221 ; ( # 8220 ; polysemous # 8221 ; ) message. One of the most famed illustrations of what Dante means of lexical ambiguity is given in his analyses of some poetries of Psalm, in # 8220 ; Exit Israel de Aegypto # 8221 ; . Following the mediaeval theory, Dante says refering the fierst poetry of the Psalm: # 8220 ; If we look at the missive it means the hegira of the boies of Israel from Egypt at the clip of Moses ; if we look at the fable, it means our salvation through Christ ; if we look at the moral sense it means the conversation of psyche from the wretchedness of wickedness to the province of grace ; if we look at the mystical sense it means the going of consecrated spirit from the servitude of his corruptness to the freedom of ageless glorification # 8221 ; [ 22 ; 192-193 ] . Thinking about significance, linguistic communication and it # 8217 ; s relation to the existent and nonliteral word advanced tremendously during the Renaissance, but existent research into the multiplicity of intending merely began in the eighteenth century, with the survey of neologies, equivalent word and the figures of address. Bre # 769 ; al observed modern significance of the word, yesterday # 8217 ; s and today # 8217 ; s significance, with which we foremost go familiar # 8212 ; something late rediscovered in England. In 1985, the section of English at the Birmingham ran of computing machine analysis of words as they are really used in English and came up with the surprising consequences. The primary dictionary significance of words are frequently far from the sense in which they were really used. Keep, for case, is normally defined as to retain, but in fact the word is much more frequently employed in the sense of go oning, as in # 8220 ; maintain cool # 8221 ; and # 8220 ; maintain smiling # 8221 ; . See is merely seldom required in the sense of using one # 8217 ; s eyes, but much more frequently used to show the thought of cognizing, as in # 8220 ; I see what you mean # 8221 ; [ 12 ; 83 ] . Language apprehension and linguistic communication acquisition follow the opposite path of linguistic communication alteration. I both instances, the last, non the first or crude significance of a word is a basic significance. In Anglo-American universe, lexical ambiguity was rediscovered with the coming of cognitive semantics in 1980s. Cognitive linguists began to reconnect synchronous and historical research into significance. Bre # 769 ; al knew that, diachronically, polysemy stems from the fact that the new significance or values that words get in usage do non automatically extinguish the old 1s # 8212 ; lexical ambiguity is hence the consequence of semantic invention. The new and the old significance exist in the analogue. And yet, synchronically, or in linguistic communication usage, lexical ambiguity doesn # 8217 ; t truly be # 8212 ; sense choice in the comprehension procedure is non a job at all. In the context of discourse a word has one significance # 8212 ; except, one should indicate out, in gags and wordplaies. The most of import factor that brings about the generation of intending diachronically and that helps to # 8220 ; cut down # 8221 ; the multiplicity of intending synchronically is the context of discourse. We understand polysemantic words because the words are ever used in the context of a discourse and a state of affairs, which eliminate all the bordering significance in favor of merely one in inquiry [ 12 ; 91 ] . However, in the changeless dialectical relation between synchronism and historical linguistics, and between intending and understanding incremental alterations in the significance of words occur holding understood a word in a certain context in a somewhat divergent manner, become themselves talkers and might utilize a word in the freshly understood manner in yet another context, which once more bring about different types of apprehension, and so on. In the long tally, these somewhat fluctuations in usage and consumption may take to major semantic alterations. Bre # 769 ; Al was fascinated by the fact that when speaking to each other we neither get confused by the multiplicity of intending that a word may hold, nor are we bothered with the etymological lineage of a word, traced by historical lexicons. The scientist was acutely cognizant of the fact that semantic, cognitive and developmental side of the linguistic communication was non yet on a par with the progresss made in the survey of phonetics, of the more physiological side of linguistic communication. With Bre # 769 ; al semantics as a lingual subject made a first measure into the hereafter, the hereafter in which we are still take parting and to which we are still lending beyond the terminal of the twentieth century [ 17 ; 63 ] . There followed a period of polysemantic latency, so to talk, after the coming of transformational productive grammar with its focal point on sentence structure and subsequently characteristic semantics. Polysemy was illustrated by the research undertaken by Hans Blumerberg, Uriel Weireich, Harald Weireich, James McCawley, Charles Fillmore. Modern linguists besides pay great attending to the probes in the semantic domain. The traditional differentiation between lexical ambiguity and homonymy is based on whether there is one or two lexical points involved. 1.2.1 The Diachronic Approach to Studying Polysemy Polysemy is built-in in the very nature of words and constructs as every object and every impression has many characteristics and a construct reflected in a word ever contains a generalization of several traits of the object. A word which has more than one significance is called polysemous. Different significances of a polysemous word may come together due to the propinquity of impressions which they express e.g. the word # 8220 ; cover # 8221 ; has the undermentioned significances: a woollen covering used on beds, a covering for maintaining a Equus caballus warm, a covering of any sort ( a cover of snow ) , covering all or most instances used attributively, e.g. we can state # 8220 ; a cover insurance policy # 8221 ; . There are some words in the linguistic communication which are monosemantic, such as most footings, equivalent word, some pronouns ( this, my, both ) , numbers. There are two procedures of the semantic development of a word: radiation and concatenation. In instances of radiation the primary significance bases in the Centre and the secondary significances proceed out of it like beams. Each secondary significance can be traced to the primary significance. E.g. in the word # 8220 ; face # 8221 ; the primary significance denotes # 8220 ; the front portion of the human caput # 8221 ; Connected with the front place the significances: the front portion of a ticker, the front portion of a edifice, the front portion of a playing card were formed. Connected with the word # 8220 ; face # 8221 ; itself the significances: look of the face, outward visual aspect are formed. In instances of concatenation secondary significances of a word develop like a concatenation. In such instances it is hard to follow some significances to the primary 1. E.g. in the word # 8220 ; crust # 8221 ; the primary significance # 8220 ; difficult outer portion of staff of life # 8221 ; developed a secondary significance # 8220 ; difficult portion of anything ( a pie, a bar ) # 8221 ; , so the significance # 8220 ; harder bed over soft snow # 8221 ; was developed, so # 8220 ; a dark glooming individual # 8221 ; , so # 8220 ; cheek # 8221 ; were developed. Here the last significances have nil to make with the primary 1s. In such instances homonyms appear in the linguistic communication. It is called the split of lexical ambiguity. In most instances in the semantic development of a word both ways of semantic development are combined [ 2 ; 19-21 ] . In polysemous words we are faced non with the job of analysis of single significances, but chiefly with the job of interrelatedness and mutuality of the assorted significances in the semantic construction of the same word. The job may be approached from two different angles. If lexical ambiguity is viewed diachronically, it is understood as the growing and development or, in general, a alteration in the semantic construction of the word. The term # 8220 ; historical # 8221 ; is composed of the Greek morphemes dia intending # 8220 ; through # 8221 ; chromos intending # 8220 ; clip # 8221 ; . Therefore, the historical attack in footings of particular lexicology trades with alterations and the development of vocabulary in the class of clip. The two attacks in lexicology ( synchronous and historical ) should non be contrasted or put one against the other ; in fact, they are interconnected and mutualist: every lingual construction and system exist in a province of a changeless development so that the synchronous province of a linguistic communication system is a consequence of a long procedure of lingual rating, the consequence of the historical development of the linguistic communication [ 16 ; 176-177 ] . The historical attack in footings of particular lexicology trades with the alterations and the development of vocabulary in the class of clip. The two attacks shouldn # 8217 ; t be set one against the other. In fact, they are interconnected and interrelated because every lingual construction and system exists in a province of changeless development so that the synchronous province of a linguistic communication system is a consequence of a long procedure of lingual rating, of its historical development. A historical attack is one that analyzes the development of something over clip, leting one to measure how that something alterations throughout history. You would utilize this attack to analyse the effects of variable alteration on something. Polysemy in a historical footings implies that a word may retain its old significance or significances and at the same clip get one or several new 1s. Then the job of interrelatedness and mutuality of single significances of a polysemous word may be approximately formulated as follows: did the word ever possess all its significances or did some of them appear earlier than the others? If so what is the nature of this dependance? Can we detect any alterations in the agreement of the significances? In the class of a historical semantic analysis of the polysemous word tabular array we find that of all the significances it has in Modern English, the primary significance is # 8220 ; a level slab of rock or wood # 8221 ; which was proper to the word in the Old English period ( OE. tabule from L. tabula ) ; all other significances are secondary as they are derived from the primary significance of the word and appeared subsequently than the primary significance. The footings # 8220 ; secondary # 8221 ; and # 8220 ; derived # 8221 ; intending are to a certain extent synonymous. When we describe the significance of the word as # 8220 ; secondary # 8221 ; we imply that it could non hold appeared before the primary significance was being. When we refer to the significance as # 8220 ; derived # 8221 ; we imply non merely that, but besides that it is dependent on the primary significance and somehow subsidiary to it. In the instance of the word tabular array, for example, we may state that the significance # 8220 ; the nutrient put on the tabular array # 8221 ; is derived through metonymic transportation we can besides depict it as secondary and metonymic [ 8 ; 203 ] . It follows that the chief beginning of lexical ambiguity is a alteration in the semantic construction of the word. As can be seen from the above, in historical analysis of lexical ambiguity we can utilize many constructs and footings discussed in the paragraphs devoted to the alteration of significance. We can talk, for illustration of metaphoric or metonymic significances if we imply the nature of dependance of the significances, of extended or restricted significances, if we are connected with the interrelatedness of significances as a consequence of semantic alteration. Polysemy may besides originate from homonymy. When two words become indistinguishable in sound-form, the significances of the two words are felt as doing up one semantic construction. Therefore, the human ear and the ear of maize are from the historical point of position two homonyms. One is etymologically related to Latin auris, the other to Latin acus, aceris. Synchronically, nevertheless, they are perceived as two significances of one and the same word. The ear of maize is felt to be a metaphor of the usual type ( californium. the oculus of the acerate leaf, the pes of the mountain ) and accordingly as one of the derived or, synchronically, minor significances of the polysemous word ear. Cases of this type are relatively rare and, as a regulation, illustrative of the vagueness of the boundary line line between lexical ambiguity and homonymy. Semantic alterations result as a regulation in a new significances being added to the 1s already bing in the semantic construction of the word. Some of the old significances may go disused or even disappear, but the majority of English words tend to increase in a figure of significances [ 18 ; 43 ] . To reason we may state that, lexical ambiguity viewed diachronically is a historical alteration in the semantic construction of the word ensuing in a new significances being added to the 1s already bing and in the rearrangement of these significances in its semantic construction. As the semantic construction is neer inactive the relationship between the diachronic and synchronous rating of single significances of the same word may be different in different periods of the historical developments of linguistic communication. 1.2.2 Synchronous Approach to Studying Polysemy The synchronous attack analyzes a peculiar something at a given, fixed point in clip. It does non try to do tax write-offs about the patterned advance of events that contributed to the current province, but merely analyzes the construction of that province, as it is. The synchronous attack surveies linguistic communication as a theoretical # 8220 ; point # 8221 ; in clip. It refers to descriptive lexicology as subdivision of linguistics trades with the vocabulary and vocabulary units of linguistic communication at a certain clip. Synchronically we understand polysemy as the coexistence of assorted significances of the same word at a certain historical period of the development of the linguistic communication. In that instance the job of interrelatedness and independency of single significances doing up the semantic construction of the word must be investigated along different lines. In connexion with the polysemous word tabular array discussed above we are chiefly concerned with the undermentioned jobs: are all the nine significances every bit representative of the semantic construction of this word? Does it reflect the comparative value of single significances, the topographic point they occupy in the semantic construction of the word tabular array? Intuitively we feel that the significance that is really representative of the word, the significance that first occurs to us whether we hear or see the word tabular array, is # 8220 ; an article of furniture # 8221 ; . This emerges as the basic or the cardinal significance of the word and other significances are minor in comparing. It should be noted that whereas the basic significance is representative of the word tabular array in isolation its minor significances are observed merely in certain contexts, e.g. # 8220 ; to maintain the tabular array amused # 8221 ; , # 8220 ; a piece of contents # 8221 ; etc. Thus we can presume that the significance # 8220 ; a piece of furniture # 8221 ; occupies the cardinal topographic point in the semantic construction of the word tabular array. As to other significances of this word it # 8217 ; s difficult to rate them in order of their comparative value. Some may, for illustration, see the second and the 3rd significances ( # 8220 ; the individuals seated at the tabular array # 8221 ; and # 8220 ; put nutrient on the tabular array # 8221 ; ) as every bit # 8220 ; of import # 8221 ; , some may reason that the significance # 8220 ; put nutrient on the tabular array # 8221 ; should be given precedence [ 21 ; 253-254 ] . As viewed synchronically there is no nons ubjective standard to travel by, it may be found hard in some instances to individual out even the basic significances as two or significance of the word may be felt as every bit # 8220 ; cardinal # 8221 ; in its semantic construction. If we analyse the verb to acquire, e.g. , which of the two significances # 8220 ; to obtain # 8221 ; ( acquire to London, to acquire into bed ) shall we see as the basic significance of this word? A more nonsubjective standard of the comparative value of single significances seems to be the frequence of their happening in the address. There is a inclination in a modern linguistics to construe the construct of the cardinal significance in footings of the frequence of happening of this significance. It a survey of five million words made by a group of lingual scientists it was found that the frequence value of single significances is different. Of great importance is the stylistic stratification of significances of a polysemous word as non merely words but single significances to may differ in their stylistic mention. Stylistic ( or regional ) # 8212 ; position of monosemantic words is easy perceived. For case, the word dada can be referred to the conversational stylistic bed, the word parent to bookish. The word film is recognizably American and barnie is Scotish. Polysemous words as a regulation can non be given any such restrictive labels. To make it we must province the significance in which they are used. There is nil conversational or slangy or American about the word yellow denoting coloring material, dork in the significance of # 8220 ; a sudden or halting motion # 8221 ; every bit far as these peculiar significances are concerned. But when yellow Is used in the significance of # 8220 ; sensational # 8221 ; or when dork is used in the significance of # 8220 ; an uneven individual # 8221 ; it # 8217 ; s both slang and American [ 10 ; 47-48 ] . Stylistically impersonal significances are of course more frequent. The polysemous words worker and manus, for illustration, may both denote # 8220 ; the adult male who does manual work # 8221 ; . But whereas this is the most frequent and stylistically impersonal significance of the word worker, it is observed merely in 2.8 % of all happenings of the word manus, in the semantic construction of which the significance # 8220 ; a adult male who does the manual work # 8221 ; ( to engage mill custodies ) is one of its fringy significances characterized by conversational stylistic mention. Broadly talking the mutuality of manner and frequence in significances is correspondent to that bing in words. It should be noted that the significance of the highest frequence value is the one representative of the whole semantic construction of the word. This can be illustrated by analysing the two words under treatment. The intending representative of the word worker is doubtless # 8220 ; a adult male who does manual work # 8221 ; [ 21 ; 258 ] . In decision, lexical ambiguity viewed synchronically is understood as co-existence of assorted significances of the same word at a certain historical period and the agreement of these significances in the semantic construction of the word. lexical ambiguity linguistic communication context 1.3 Polysemy and its Connection with the Context In modern linguistics context is defined as the minimum stretch of address necessary to signal significance for words. This is non to connote that polysemous words have significances merely in context. The semantic construction of the word has an nonsubjective being as a dialectical entity which embodies dialectical permanence and variableness. The context individualises the significances, brings them out. It is in this sense that we say that significance is determined by the context. The significances representative of the semantic construction of the word and least dependent on context are sometimes described as free or denominative significances. Against the background of lingual idea as it has developed in modern linguistics we define context as the minimum stretch of address necessary to signal single significance of words. There are several types of context: lingual and extra-linguistic ( non-verbal ) contexts. Linguistic context include lexical and grammatical context. These two types of contexts are differentiated depending on whether lexical or grammatical facet is prevailing in doing the significance of the word explicit. The interaction between lexical and grammatical facets in the semantic construction of the word is most complex and needs particular remarks. 1 ) Lexical context is best illustrated by the fact that there are groups of words in any linguistic communication that are semantically compatible merely with certain categories of agents. Lexical incongruousness of words frequently serves to do the necessary significance clear contracting down the assorted possible significances of the word, and no ambiguity arises. The verb to run, for case, has chiefly the significance # 8216 ; to travel fleetly or with speedy action # 8217 ; , as a watercourse, waggon, individual ; with words denoting something written, inscribed, worded, or the like the verb tally means to sound ( eg. This is how the poetry runs ) ; with agents denoting assorted workss the verb tally is synonymically correlated to turn # 8212 ; to go bigger ; with agents denoting engines or machines by which physical power is applied to bring forth a physical consequence, the verb to run agencies # 8212 ; to turn off the engine ( to go forth the engine running ) . In all the illustrations given above the significance of the verb to run is signaled by the lexical significances of the nouns in the place of the topic. The predomination of the lexical contexts in finding the significance of the verb in such utilizations is rather apparent. Examples of lexical contexts which operate to convey the necessary significance of a polysemic word may be given in Numberss. Resolution of structural ambiguity by lexical chance is a frequent happening. Compare besides the undermentioned variant significances of the adjective viridity which has chiefly the significance # 8216 ; of the coloring material green # 8217 ; : green walls, green lesion, green memories # 8212 ; fluctuation in significance in each instance is signaled by the lexical significance of the noun involved in a given syntagma. The adjectival heavy in its primary sense means # 8216 ; weighty, non easy to raise, of great weight # 8217 ; [ 4 ; 126-127 ] . In combination with words denoting natural phenomena heavy agencies violent: heavy storm, heavy rain, heavy snow. Not less characteristic are such utilizations of the adjectival as: heavy work, heavy manner, a heavy sky, with a heavy bosom # 8212 ; the significance of the adjectival in each instance is signaled by the lexical significance of the noun with which it occurs. Further typical illustrations of lexical context finding the word significance will be found in the distribution of assorted categories of adjectives. Observe, for case, the usage of the undermentioned phrases with the adjectival warm whose significance in each instance is signaled by the lexical significance of the noun involved: warm milk, warm clime, warm vesture, warm welcome, warm pique, warm support, warm imaginativeness, warm colors. As can be seen from above illustrations, the lexico-semantic fluctuation of the adjectival warm makes it synonymous with such words as mild, heated, affable, enthusiastic, eager, acute, antiphonal. 2 ) Grammatical context. Cases are non few when the single lexical significance of a polysemic word is determined by the grammatical construction in which it occurs, syntactic forms in the chief. Familiar illustrations of grammatical context will be found in instances like the followers: 1 ) The Equus caballus stopped imbibing. 2 ) The Equus caballus stopped to imbibe. In the first illustration stop+ing # 8212 ; complete making something, in the 2nd # 8212 ; stop+to+ infinitive # 8212 ; halt temporarily in order to. Highly declarative in this regard are verbs of generic force, such as do, do and the verbs of the # 8216 ; move and alteration # 8217 ; category: travel, come, turn, acquire, fall, run, take, bend. In grammatical contexts it is the grammatical construction of the context that serves to find assorted single significances of a polysemous word. One of the significances of the verb to do, eg. # 8220 ; to coerce, to enduce # 8221 ; , is found merely in the grammatical context possessing the construction to do person make something or in simpler footings this practical significance occurs merely if the verb brand is followed by a noun and the infinitive of some other verb ( to do person laugh, work, etc. ) [ 5 ; 182-183 ] . In a figure of contexts, nevertheless, we find both the lexical and grammatical facets should be taken into consideration. The grammatical construction of the context although declarative mood of the difference between the significance of the word in this construction and the significance of the same word in a different grammatical construction may be deficient to bespeak in which of its single significance the word in inquiry is used. Covering with lingual contexts we consider merely lingual factors: lexical groups of words, syntactic construction of context, etc. There are instances, nevertheless, when the significance of the word is finally determined non by this lingual factors, but by the existent address state of affairs. The noun ring may possess the significance # 8220 ; a circle of cherished metal # 8221 ; or # 8220 ; a call on the telephone # 8221 ; ; the significance of the verb to acquire in this lingual context may be interpreted as # 8220 ; possess # 8221 ; or # 8220 ; understand # 8221 ; depending on the existent state of affairs in which these words are used. It should be pointed out, that such instances, though possible, are non really really legion. The lingual context is by far a more powerful factor in finding the word-meaning. It is of involvement to observe that non merely the denotational but besides the connotative of constituent of significance may be affected by the context. Any word which as a linguistic communication unit is emotively impersonal may in certain context get affectional deductions. Compare, e.g. , fire in to guarantee one # 8217 ; s belongings against the fire and Fire! as a call for a aid. So the curious lexical context histories for the possibility of affectional overtones which are made expressed by the context of state of affairs [ 10 ; 16-17 ] . Cases are non few when the significance of a word is signaled by the context much larger than a given sentence or by a whole state of affairs of the vocalization, in other words, by the existent state of affairs in which this word occurs. Numerous illustrations of such vocalization will be found in syntactic constructions including parlances of different types. Another of import facet to see is sociocultural group which refers to the fact that the linguistic communication used by a sociocultural group is closely connected with its values, attitudes and beliefs. Consequently, larning a linguistic communication involves understanding and construing the civilization of which it is portion. It is of import, hence, for students to develop the ability to construe texts from perspectives other than their ain. Some of the activities to cover with sociocultural context are the undermentioned: inquiring students to compare words and looks used in assorted English-speaking contexts with those used in their ain linguistic communication context ; pupils remark on the sociocultural associations of lexis in a given text ; quizzes ; true or false inquiries ; explicating newspaper headlines, advertizements, graffito. The two or more less universally recognized chief types of lingual contexts service to find single significances of words are the lexical and grammatical contexts. These types are differentiated depending on whether the lexical or grammatical facet is prevailing in finding the significance. Meaning should ever be understood as affecting the relation of linguistic communication to the remainder of the universe and such meaningfulness is an indispensable portion of the definition of linguistic communication. Chapter II. Practical Use of Polysemy in Teaching English 2.1 Polysemy in Teaching English on Intermediate Level Practicing lexical ambiguity is separating between the assorted significance of a individual word signifier with several but closely related significances ( caput: of a individual, of a pin, of an organisation ) . In my sentiment the most of import facet of vocabulary instruction for intermediate scholars is to further learner independency so that scholars will be able to cover with new lexis and spread out their vocabulary beyond the terminal of the class. Therefore guided find, contextual guessing and utilizing lexicons should be the chief ways to cover with detecting significance. Teachers can assist pupils with specific techniques and pattern in contextual guessing, for illustration, the apprehension of discourse markers and placing the map of the word in the sentence. In my sentiment the most of import facet of learning lexical ambiguity for scholars is to further independency so that scholars will be able to cover with new lexis and spread out their vocabulary beyond the terminal of the class. Therefore guided find, contextual guessing should be the chief ways to cover with detecting significance. Intermediate degree includes the 5th # 8212 ; 9th signifier students. They already have some basic cognition in analyzing a foreign linguistic communication. If students have had good accomplishments in linguistic communication acquisition, they are normally interested in the topic and work volitionally both in category and at place. The desire to larn depends to the full on the instructor # 8217 ; s ability to affect each student in linguistic communication activities during the lesson. Pupils give penchants to those exercisings which require believing [ 1 ; 61 ] . Exercise 1 Give all the significances you know to the undermentioned verbs, exemplifying them with illustrations: to acquire ; to travel ; to convey ; to do ; to make ; to allow ; to purchase ; to get down ; to experience. Exercise 2 The noun leg has several significances: 1 ) one of the long parts of your organic structure that your pess are joined to ; 2 ) one of the series of games in a football competition played between two squads ; 3 ) one of the unsloped parts that support a piece of furniture ; 4 ) the portion of your pants that covers your leg ; 5 ) one portion of a long journey or race. Match the significances of the word face with the sentences given below: 1 ) One of the legs on the tabular array was a spot wobbly. 2 ) Here, draw up your pant legs and allow me see if your articulatio genuss are hurt. 3 ) The legs of my denims were covered in clay. 4 ) Leeds will hold to win the 2nd leg if they are to travel frontward to the finals. 5 ) The work forces looked brooding as the passenger car approached the concluding leg of the trip to the large house on the hill. 6 ) When this can spread out no farther, it splits and is rolled off, like a nylon carrying from a leg. 7 ) Raise the leg a fraction higher and reiterate this bantam motion 15 times, keeping each rise for 1 2nd. 8 ) Officers so hit Mao in the leg several times and he collapsed. 9 ) Breathing through his oral cavity, he manipulated his investigation between her legs. 10 ) Another shouting animal collapsed on broken hind legs. Exercise 3 Specify the significance of the noun caput as used in the sentences at a lower place. How many different significances did you happen? 1 ) Harmonizing to Rice, the caput of the planning commission, the undertaking is 25 % completed. 2 ) Collins suffered terrible caput hurts in the accident. 3 ) He turned his caput to snog her. 4 ) I picked up a cock and hit the caput of the nail every bit difficult as I could. 5 ) Hwang is caput of the local Communist Party, and is besides a husbandman. 6 ) People traveling out in conditions like this need their caputs examined. 7 ) She was outside cutting the dead caputs off the roses. 8 ) She saw her male parent, a caput above the remainder of the crowd. 9 ) Keep weaponries hanging, head down and cervix and shoulders relaxed. Exercise 4 How many significance of the undermentioned words do you cognize? Name them: caput, bench, to experience, to dress, manus, leg, power. Exercise 5 Match the idiomatic looks of the noun caput with their significance. 1 ) heads up! 2 ) caputs will turn over ; 3 ) to be/fall caput over heels in love ; 4 ) to be/stand caput and shoulders above person ; 5 ) to give person their caput ; 6 ) to keep up your caput ; 7 ) to travel over person s caput ; 8 ) to maintain your caput above H2O ; 9 ) to set your caputs together ; 10 ) to turn/stand something on its caput ; a ) to discourse a hard job together ; B ) to be excessively hard for person to understand ; degree Celsius ) to pull off to go on to populate on your income or maintain your concern working when this is hard because of fiscal jobs ; vitamin D ) to be much better than other people ; vitamin E ) to demo pride or assurance, particularly in a hard state of affairs ; degree Fahrenheit ) to do people think about something in the opposite manner to the manner it was originally intended ; g ) to give person the freedom to make what they want to make ; H ) to love or all of a sudden get down to love person really much ; I ) used to state that person will be punished badly for something that has happened ; J ) used to warn people that something is falling from above. 2.2 Polysemy in Teaching English on Advanced Level This phase includes 11th # 8212 ; 12th signifiers. Students can recognize the importance of analyzing linguistic communication more exhaustively. However, their attitude to foreign linguistic communication depends on the accomplishments they have attained during the old old ages of analyzing the topic. While explicating the stuff, instructor should take into history everything: pupils age, the stuff they deal with, their old cognition, etc. So, the exercising should be of assorted sorts, they have to be originative and develop students critical thought and memory. Teacher should promote his/her students, acquire them interested in larning the linguistic communication on deeper degree [ 1, 62 ] . Below, there are exercising, which are suited for this degree of linguistic communication larning. They will assist students to follow more material, to be able to distinguish polysemous significances of the words through the context of the sentences. Exercise 1 Remark on the significance of the following adjectives in the given phrases. Bad # 8212 ; behavior, male child, instance, twenty-four hours, debt, dream, experience, religion, cat, wont, thought, fortune, temper, name, intelligence, imperativeness, promotion, form, state of affairs, get down, gustatory sensation, pique, thing, things, clip, manner, conditions. Bitter # 8212 ; statement, onslaught, conflict, blow, cold, struggle, argument, letdown, difference, terminal, enemy, experience, battle, spirit, sarcasm, laugh, memory, opposition, pill, challenger, smiling, battle, gustatory sensation, tear, air current, winter. Fresh # 8212 ; air, attack, basil, blood, staff of life, zephyr, election, grounds, face, fish, flower, nutrient, fruit, herb, thought, expression, meat, Petroselinum crispum, produce, salmon, start, thyme, H2O, weight. Good # 8212 ; opportunity, status, twenty-four hours, trade, illustration, religion, luck, friend, wellness, thought, occupation, life, fortune, adult male, intelligence, dark, portion, public presentation, topographic point, place, pattern, quality, ground, sense, service, form, start, thing, clip, usage, value, manner, work. Green # 8212 ; bean, belt, bottle, card, field, signifier, grass, hill, leave, light, onion, paper, grazing land, Piper nigrum, revolution, room, salad, shoot, infinite, tea, H2O. New # 8212 ; epoch, coevals, authorities, place, thought, occupation, jurisprudence, statute law, life, member, proprietor, merchandise, school, system, engineering, town, version, universe, twelvemonth. Old # 8212 ; age, boy, brother, kid, girl, twenty-four hours, friend, coevals, twenty-four hours, lady, adult male, people, school, sister, boy, adult female. Round # 8212 ; face, figure, caput, cervix, redbreast, tabular array, trip. Thick # 8212 ; rug, cloud, fog, forest, glass, hair, tegument, skull, fume, soup, wall. Thin # 8212 ; air, cotton, face, finger, forest, ice, line, lip, mist, sheet, tegument, piece, paper, yarn, veneer, voice. Exercise 2 Paraphrase the italicized words and phrases by those given below the sentences: 1. From the tower, you can see for stat mis. 2. Having a kid makes you see things otherwise. 3. He could see a great hereafter for her in music. 4. I do nt cognize. We ll merely hold to see how it goes on Sunday. 5. I have to see my instructor about my classs. 6. I merely ca nt acquire her to see ground! 7. I ll be seeing her tomorrow dark. 8. I ll name him and see how the occupation interview went. 9. I saw Jane while I was out. 10. I see what you mean. 11. It will be interesting to see if he makes it into the squad. 12. Leave the documents with me and I ll see what I can make. 13. More money must be invested if we are to see an betterment in services. 14. Mr. Thomas is seeing a client at 2:30. 15. Please see that the visible radiations are switched off before you leave. 16. See imperativeness for inside informations. 17. See you Friday your topographic point at 8:30. 18. The minute we saw the house, we knew we wanted to purchase it. 19. The consequences are shown in Table 7a ( see below ) . 20. We re traveling to see Romeo and Juliet tonight. to detect or analyze person or something, utilizing your eyes ; to detect that something is go oning or that something is true ; to be able to see ; to happen out information or a fact ; to happen out about something in the hereafter ; to see how things go ; used to state you where you can happen information ; see above/below ; to understand something ; to see reason/sense ; to watch a telecasting programme, movie ; to see something ; used to state that you will seek to assist person ; used to state adieu ; to see or run into person ; to run into person by opportunity ; to hold an ordered meeting with person ; to see person to discourse something ; to conceive of that something may go on in the hereafter ; to do certain. Exercise 3 Supply the losing words by utilizing those given at the terminal: 1. She didn # 8217 ; t want to acquire # 8230 ; # 8230 ; . . 2. More and more people are acquiring # 8230 ; # 8230 ; # 8230 ; to e-banking. 3. I don # 8217 ; t want to acquire # 8230 ; # 8230 ; # 8230 ; # 8230 ; in some drawn-out statement about who is to fault. 4. He was the last individual I would anticipate to acquire # 8230 ; # 8230 ; .. # 8230 ; .. in something like this. 5. Most adolescents would instead acquire # 8230 ; .. and # 8230 ; # 8230 ; . with their friends. 6. I hate summer holiday. The kids get # 8230 ; # 8230 ; # 8230 ; my pess all twenty-four hours long. 7. I do the dishes every twenty-four hours, so I # 8217 ; m # 8230 ; # 8230 ; # 8230 ; .. it. 8. The package must hold got # 8230 ; # 8230 ; # 8230 ; in the station. 9. Why doesn # 8217 ; t she # 8230 ; .. a # 8230 ; # 8230 ; . ? They even don # 8217 ; t speak. 10. He merely took the occupation to acquire # 8230 ; # 8230 ; # 8230 ; in the pension fund. 11. We got # 8230 ; # 8230 ; # 8230 ; .. to working together. 12. Don # 8217 ; t # 8230 ; # 8230 ; # 8230 ; .. # 8212 ; I like Jenny. 13. Paul ever # 8230 ; # 8230 ; # 8230 ; # 8230 ; # 8230 ; # 8230 ; .. whenever he has to give a presentation. 14. We get in # 8230 ; # 8230 ; # 8230 ; . by electronic mail. 15. I was still in New York seeking to # 8230 ; # 8230 ; . a # 8230 ; # 8230 ; . to Paris. 16. Take an umbrella or you will # 8230 ; # 8230 ; . # 8230 ; # 8230 ; .. . 17. I # 8230 ; # 8230 ; . Because he hadn # 8217 ; t told me his programs. Fired ; hip ; involved ; lost ; mixed up ; out # 8230 ; about ; under ; used to ; contact ; vested ; accustomed ; acquire me incorrect ; gets nervous ; acquire moisture ; acquire a divorce ; acquire a visa ; got angry. Exercise 4 Match the undermentioned definitions of the word brand by the phrases given below: 1. to do encouraging noises ; 2. a lucifer made in Eden ; 3. to do a luck ; 4. to do a life ; 5. to do believe ; 6. to do or interrupt ; 7. to do a comparing ; 8. to be of your ain devising ; 9. to be made of rock ; 10. to do a engagement. a ) to gain a batch of money ; B ) to gain money one # 8217 ; s need to populate on ; degree Celsius ) to conceive of that something is true when it is non so ; vitamin D ) to be really successful or to neglect wholly ; vitamin E ) to state things which suggest what your attitude is ; degree Fahrenheit ) to demo similarities between two individuals or things ; g ) a matrimony between two pe